Tetracarpidium Conophorum (African Walnut) Seeds Protects Against Diabetes-Induced Liver Damage in Rats Treated with Streptozotocin
Introduction: This study evaluated the protective potential of Tetracarpidium conophorum seeds against liver damage in rats treated with a single intraperitoneal dose of 75 mg/kg/body weight of streptozotocin. Material and Methods: The rats were divided into five (n=5) groups: A - normal control, B - diabetic control, C - diabetic rats treated orally with a Tetracarpidium conophorum seeds extract (500 mg/kg/body weight), D - diabetic rats treated orally with 7 mg/kg/body weight of metformin and E - diabetic rats treated subcutaneously with 0.3 IU/kg/body weight of Humulin R. Treatment was done once daily for 2 weeks. A blood sample was collected for biochemical estimations. The liver and pancreas were also harvested for biochemical/histological studies. Results: The blood glucose reduction percentage was 41%, 34%, and 36% in rats treated with Tetracarpidium conophorum seeds, metformin and insulin, respectively. Tetracarpidium conophorum seeds significantly reduced (p<0.05) thiobarbituric reactive substances, serum transaminases, gamma-glutamyl transferase levels, and the percentage of hepatic fragmented DNA while it significantly decreased (p<0.05) glutathione levels and increased superoxide dismutase activity. Histological observations showed varying degrees of liver and pancreas damage in the diabetic group that was untreated, while the administration of Tetracarpidium conophorum seeds significantly improved the general histoarchitecture of tissues relative to control group and other treatment groups. Conclusions: Tetracarpidium conophorum seeds possess good glycemic control of diabetes mellitus and protect the liver against oxidative damage induced by hyperglycemia.