Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases http://www.rjdnmd.org/index.php/RJDNMD <p>The <strong>Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases</strong> is the journal of the <strong>Romanian Society of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases</strong>.</p> <p>It appeared for the first time in 1992, in Romanian language and beginning with 2006 it was published entirely in English. It is a peer reviewed journal, therefore the accepted articles were peer-reviewed by <strong>at least two scientific experts</strong> in the field.</p> <p>It contains <strong>original papers</strong>, including fundamental and clinical research, <strong>literature reviews</strong>, <strong>clinical reports</strong>, <strong>editorials</strong>, articles that contain the <strong>results of the most important clinical studies</strong>, reports from the important congresses and <strong>book reviews</strong>.&nbsp;</p> <p>In Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases there may be published only papers exclusively sent to this journal, not published previously. The authors should include possible conflicts of interest and financing sources. The laws of copyright and international rules of scientific research are respected.</p> <p>The Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases <strong>strictly requires</strong> for all the scientific work published <strong>to be 100% compliant</strong> with the&nbsp;<a title="ICMJE.ORG" href="http://www.icmje.org/icmje-recommendations.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals</a>&nbsp;and with the&nbsp;<a title="Best Practices" href="http://doaj.org/bestpractice" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing</a> (joint statement by COPE, DOAJ, WAME, and OASPA).</p> <p>This journal appears trimestrially (four numbers/year). 650-800 copies are printed on each number.</p> <p>ILEX Printing House, Bucharest, has the exclusivity for the typesetting, printing and distribution of the Romanian Journal of Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases.</p> <p>Our journal is recognized by the Romanian National University Research Council (CNCSIS - 2009) to be part in the B+ category, Code 322.</p> <p>The Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases is currently indexed in:</p> <p>- Index Copernicus<br>- Get Cited<br>- SCOPUS<br>- Scirus<br>- Celdes<br>- CNKI Scholar (China National Knowledge Infrastucture)<br>- CNPIEC<br>- EBSCO - TOC Premier<br>- EBSCO Discovery Service<br>- Google Scholar<br>- J-Gate<br>- Naviga (Softweco)<br>- Primo Central (ExLibris)<br>- SCImago (SJR)<br>- Summon (Serials Solutions/ProQuest)<br>- TDOne (TDNet)<br>- Ulrich's Periodicals Directory/ulrichsweb<br>- WorldCat (OCLC)</p> Romanian Society of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases en-US Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases 2068-8245 LOW CARB DIET – TO LOVE OR TO HATE? http://www.rjdnmd.org/index.php/RJDNMD/article/view/528 <p>The editorial of the 3rd Number of RJDNMD.ORG from 2018</p> Alexandra Sima ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-23 2018-09-23 25 3 233 236 GENDER AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: ARE THEY ASSOCIATED WITH BODY MASS INDEX IN ELDERLY JORDANIAN PEOPLE? http://www.rjdnmd.org/index.php/RJDNMD/article/view/471 <p>&nbsp;<strong><em>Background:</em></strong><em> The number of elderly people are increasing worldwide, and elevated body mass index is a common problem that occur with elderly people, which can be directly or indirectly affected by level of physical activity and gender. So it was essential to study the effect of both physical activity and gender on body mass index in elderly people. <strong>Material and methods: </strong></em><em>A cross sectional observational study was conducted on 120 elderly Jordanian people who live in Amman (62 women; 58 men) and evaluated for body mass index. Those participants were 40 elderly who attended the gym at least twice a week for the last 2 years, and 80 elderly who were home resident or physically inactive. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data about personal, social, health and life-style information including the daily activities and the anthropometric measurements for the study participants. </em><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>: The results of this study showed that as elderly people become physically inactive, their body mass index will increase to become as overweight or obese. The results of this study also showed that body mass index of 30 and more was associated with gender, with majority of female elderly (50%) having body mass index of 30 or more. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>physical activity should be maintained by both genders in order to prevent obesity, primarily in women as they are more likely to become obese that men. Furthermore, body mass index should not exceed 30 in elderly. Physical activity is essential in order to obtain healthy weight.&nbsp; </em></p> Safaa A. Al-Zeidaneen Maha T Hdaib Yahya W Najjar Marwa A Al-Zidaneen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-23 2018-09-23 25 3 237 242 ACCUMULATION OF FATTY ACIDS IN ATHEROSCLEROTIC ARTERIES AS A RESULT OF CHANGES IN A NUMBER OF PROCESSES OF SYNTHESIS AND OXIDATION http://www.rjdnmd.org/index.php/RJDNMD/article/view/482 <p><strong><em>Background and aims: </em></strong><em>The study aims to analyze of fatty acid (FA) composition of arteries and blood plasma in atherosclerosis. <strong>Material and method:</strong>The blood plasma in patients with coronary atherosclerosis was studied, the blood from healthy volunteers was used as control. There were also analyzed arteries of patients with severe atherosclerotic lesions and arteries of people with significantly less atherosclerotic changes. <strong>Results:</strong>The data received indicates that there is a rather active penetration of FA from blood plasma lipoproteins into intima of arteries. Penetration of FA from blood lipoproteins into the depth of aorta and an atherosclerotic plaque appears to be small. A greater impact on the accumulation of FA in composition of atherosclerotic vessels is apparently produced by free FA of blood plasma, which did not undergo oxidation. The evidence of the increased activity of desaturases and fatty acid synthases in atherosclerotic and intact arteries in patients with severe atherosclerotic vascular lesions was obtained. <strong>Conclusions:</strong>These facts can promote accumulation of lipids in arterial wall by increasing the synthesis and inhibition of FA oxidation. The increased desaturase activity in cells of arteries, in turn, may be caused by relatively low content of polyunsaturated linoleic acid in blood plasma in atherosclerosis.</em></p> Alexander Nikolaevich Osipenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-23 2018-09-23 25 3 243 252 POTENCY OF CAPE GOOSEBERRY (PHYSALIS PERUVIANA) JUICE IN IMPROVING ANTIOXIDANT AND ADIPONECTIN LEVEL OF HIGH FAT DIET STREPTOZOTOCIN RAT MODEL http://www.rjdnmd.org/index.php/RJDNMD/article/view/484 <p class="Abstracttext"><em><strong>Background and aims:&nbsp;</strong>Quercetin belonging flavonoid has a role to improve diabetic condition. Research aimed to examine and to compare Cape Gooseberry (CG) juice and quercetin supplement on Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and adiponectin level of high fat diet-Streptozotocin(HFD-STZ) induced rat. <strong>Material and method:&nbsp;</strong>CG juice 5 ml/kg/d (X1) and 25 ml/kg/d (X2) groups; and quercetin supplement 2.2 mg/kg/d (X3) and 30 mg/kg/d (X4) groups were compared with both of positive (K+) and negative (K-) control. Treatments were given by orally gavage for 28 days to 36 Wistar rats which each group consisted of 6 rats. TAC and adiponectin level were measured by ABTS and ELISA method respectively. <strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong>There was significantly increase of TAC in treatment groups compared with K(+) (p&lt;0.05). X2 had TAC level significantly higher than X1 (p=0.025). Moreover, adiponectin level of treatment groups were significantly higher than K(+) (p&lt;0.05). Furthermore, X2 had adiponectin level significantly higher than X3 (p&lt;0.001). <strong>Conclusion:&nbsp;</strong>CG juice 25 ml/kg/d presented better effect than CG juice 5 ml/kg/d, although quercetin 30 mg/kg/d showed the best effects toward both of TAC and adiponectin.</em></p> Luthfia Dewi Mohammad Sulchan Kisdjamiatun - ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-23 2018-09-23 25 3 253 260 METABOLIC SYNDROME AND PULMONARY FUNCTION INDICES http://www.rjdnmd.org/index.php/RJDNMD/article/view/487 <p><em><strong>Background and aims:</strong> Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a collection of metabolic risk factors including increased waist circumference (WC), elevated blood pressure (BP), increased triglyceride (TG), decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and increased fasting blood sugar (FBS). We aimed to examine the relevance between the MetS and its components with reduced lung functions in adult men. <strong>Material and method:</strong> A total of 3899 adult men underwent screening examination between 2015- 2016 in a cross-sectional survey. <strong>Results:</strong> The mean (± SD) age of our population was 37.25(± 4.9) years. The overall prevalence of MetS was 7.6%. The total prevalence of reduced lung function in men with MetS was 13.8%. The most common type of reduced lung function was the restrictive pattern (7.1%). The forced expiratory volume of first second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) values were significantly lower in men with MetS (both p&lt;0.001). Also these values were significantly lower in diabetic men compared to non-diabetics and those with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). WC and HDL were the most potent predictors of reduced FEV1 and FVC. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> We obtained a positive independent association between MetS and reduced lung function in adult men, mainly due to increased WC and decreased HDL.</em></p> Mohammad Mehraban Gholamreza Pouryaghoub Ramin Mehrdad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-23 2018-09-23 25 3 261 269 EFFECT OF FIBER-RICH SNACKS ON C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AND ATHEROGENIC INDEX IN TYPE 2 DIABETES PATIENTS http://www.rjdnmd.org/index.php/RJDNMD/article/view/531 <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p><em><strong>Background and aims:</strong> High levels of non-HDL and atherogenic cholesterol can induce inflammation, and as risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This study was to evaluate the effects of fiber-rich snacks on non-HDL cholesterol, atherogenic index, and C- reactive protein (CRP) levels in type 2 diabetes patients (T2DM).<strong> Material and Methods:</strong>Twenty T2DM patients, were recruited from the Policlinic of Endocrine, Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The subjects received daily 32g fiber-rich snacks made of Dioscorea esculenta, arrowroot, cassava and pumpkin for 4 weeks. Fasting non-HDL cholesterol, atherogenic index, CRP and HbA1c levels were measured before and after intervention. Paired t-test was used to evaluate the results. <strong>Results:</strong> The fiber-rich snack intervention in T2DM patients significantly reduced levels of non-HDL cholesterol and CRP levels (p&lt;0.05), but the decreased the atherogenic index was not significant (p&gt;0.05). The intervention also significantly reduced the CRP levels (p&lt;0.05) but did not affect HbA1c levels. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference decreased significantly after consuming the snacks (p&lt;0.05). <strong>Conclusions:</strong>This study showed fiber-rich snack has a positive effect in improving non-HDL cholesterol, atherogenic index and CRP levels but does not affect HbA1c levels in T2DM patients.</em></p> </div> </div> </div> Sunarti Sunarti Sri Lestari Sulistyo Rini Hemi Sinorita Dini Ariani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-23 2018-09-23 25 3 271 276 REMOVABLE DENTURES TREATMENT SATISFACTION OF PATIENTS WITH TYPE-2 DIABETES http://www.rjdnmd.org/index.php/RJDNMD/article/view/498 <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <p><em><strong>Background and aims:</strong> The aim of this study was to find out which was the impact of the treatment with removable dentures on the satisfaction of the type 2 diabetes patients.&nbsp;<strong>Material and method:</strong> 50 patients, 27 females (54%) and 23 males (46%)were included in the study. 37 were treated by using a partial removable denture and 13 were receiving a complete denture. Each patient included in the study had answered to a questionnaire after the first year of wearing the dentures and the blood glycemic level and the salivary flux were assessed.&nbsp;Chi-square test was applied to investigate the statistical significance of observed differences in proportions. Kruskal -Wallis test was applied to compare distributions across the groups.&nbsp;<strong>Conclusions:</strong> The prosthodontic treatment of the type -2 diabetic patients with removable denture should be started after stabilizing the blood glycemic levels and treating the xerostomia, when present. &nbsp;&nbsp;</em></p> Luciana Goguta Diana Lungeanu Anca Jivanescu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-23 2018-09-23 25 3 277 282 THE INDICES OF NITRIC OXIDE SYSTEM IN RATS WITH CARRAGEENAN-INDUCED ENTEROCOLITIS COMBINED WITH DIABETES MELLITUS http://www.rjdnmd.org/index.php/RJDNMD/article/view/518 <p><em><strong>Background and aims:</strong> Diabetes mellitus (DM) represents a considerable public health issue, being one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the modern societies. Chronic hyperglycemia is accompanied by significant physiological, biochemical, and histological changes, e.g. development of oxidative stress that affects the motor activity of the intestine. This study was evaluates the indices of nitric oxide (NO) system in blood serum and colon tissue supernatant of rats with carrageenan-induced enterocolitis combined with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.&nbsp;<strong>Material and methods: </strong>The total NOS activity was determined by monitoring the rate of conversion of L-arginine into citrulline. The total quantity of NO metabolites was assessed by evaluating their amount, which included nitrite ions that were initially present in the sample (NO<sub>2</sub><strong><sup>–</sup></strong>) and nitrate ions reducted to nitrites (NO<sub>3</sub><strong><sup>–</sup></strong>). <strong>Results: </strong>We found a significant increase in total NOS activity in colon tissue of all experimental groups vs. control animals (54.8, 30.6 and 79.2 % respectively). The total content of NO metabolites in colon tissue of all experimental groups also significantly increased ( 2.8, 1.9 and 3.4 times respectively) compared to the control animals. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>We observed activation of nitroxydergic process in blood serum and colon tissue of rats with carrageenan-induced enterocolitis. Nitroxydergic processes markedly intensified in rats with carrageenan-induced enterocolitis combined with diabetes mellitus.</em></p> Inna Krynytska Mariya Marushchak ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-23 2018-09-23 25 3 283 288 HEART RATE VARIABILITY ANALYSIS: HIGUCHI AND KATZ’S FRACTAL DIMENSIONS IN SUBJECTS WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS http://www.rjdnmd.org/index.php/RJDNMD/article/view/515 <p><em><strong>Abstract:</strong> Introduction: Statistical markers are valuable when assessing physiological status over periods of time and in certain disease states. We assess if type 1 diabetes mellitus promote modification in autonomic nervous system using the main two types of algorithms to estimate a Fractal Dimension: Higuchi and Katz. Methods: 46 adults were divided into two equal groups. The autonomic evaluation consisted of recording heart rate variability (HRV) for 30 minutes in supine position in absence of any other stimuli. Fractal dimensions ought then able to determine which series of interbeat intervals are derived from diabetics’ or not. We then equated results to observe which assessment gave the greatest significance by One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA1), Kruskal-Wallis technique and Cohen’s d effect sizes. Results: Katz’s fractal dimension is the most robust algorithm when assisted by a cubic spline interpolation (6 Hz) to increase the number of samples in the dataset. This was categorical after two tests for normality; then, ANOVA1, Kruskal-Wallis and Cohen’s d effect sizes (p≈0.01 and Cohen’s d=0.814143 –medium effect size). Conclusion: Diabetes significantly reduced the chaotic response as measured by Katz’s fractal dimension. Katz’s fractal dimension is a viable statistical marker for subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus.</em></p> David Matthew Garner Naiara Maria de Souza Luiz Carlos Marques Vanderlei ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-23 2018-09-23 25 3 289 295 TYPE 2 DIABETES AND HASHIMOTO THYROIDITIS-POSSIBLE ASSOCIATIONS AND CLINICAL CORRELATIONS - PRELIMINARY RESULTS http://www.rjdnmd.org/index.php/RJDNMD/article/view/513 <p><em><strong>Background and aims: </strong>The primary objective is to evaluate the possible relationship between Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) and Hashimoto Thyroiditis (HT), since the only correlation described until now is between Type 1 Diabetes and HT based on the autoimmune mechanism. The secondary end-point is to evaluate if there is a correlation between the characteristics of Type 2 Diabetes and autoimmune thyroiditis and if the metabolic component may be a factor of association. <strong>Material and method:</strong>We designed a retrospective, observational research, enrolling patients from “Sanamed” Hospital from Bucharest. Between 2016 and 2017 in our clinic a number of 150 patients were enrolled, in the following groups: 50 only with T2DM, 50 only with HT and 50 with both T2DM and HT. <strong>Results</strong>: The main observations of the study were the following: the prevalence of obesity was higher in patients with T2DM (p&lt;0.001) than in the group with HT (p&lt;0.001); Dyslipidemia was higher in the HT group (p&lt;0.001) than in the group of T2DM (p&lt;0.001); Ischemic cardiac disease was more frequent in the HT group (p&lt;0.001) than in the Diabetes group (p&lt;0.001); in the group that had both T2DM and HT, the HbA1c was correlated with pre-existing Thyroid pathology (p&lt;0.001), also Dyslipidemia was associated with hepatic steatosis (p&lt;0.001). <strong>Conclusions</strong>: After assessing all the parameters we have reached the conclusion that there is an association between the characteristics of T2DM and HT, as well as an interaction between these two diseases, considering their metabolic component</em></p> Oana Andreea Parliteanu Dan Mircea Cheta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-23 2018-09-23 25 3 297 301 THE PREVALENCE OF ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION IN ROMANIAN ADULT POPULATION: RESULTS FROM THE PREDATORR STUDY http://www.rjdnmd.org/index.php/RJDNMD/article/view/523 <p><em>Background and aims: PREDATORR is a national study designed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, prediabetes, overweight, obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease in Romanian adult population. The aim of present study was to estimate the prevalence, incidence, treatment and control in subjects from PREDATORR study. Material and methods: This study included 2727 adults aged 20 – 79 years. Subjects were examined and three measurements were performed at a time of at least one minute and the mean of blood pressure readings was recorded. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg and/or antihypertensive drug therapy. Results: The prevalence of hypertension in Romanian adult population aged 20 – 79 years was 47.38% and was higher in men: 48.62% than women: 46.23%. The incidence of hypertension was: 10.7% in 20 – 39 years age group, 43.1% in 40 – 59 years age group and 75.1% in subjects aged ≥ 60 years. Among subjects with hypertension, 18.7% did not receive antihypertensive drug therapy, 27.7% received antihypertensive treatment in monotherapy, 34.7% were under double antihypertensive drugs and most of them (37.6%) received three or more antihypertensive drugs. Conclusions: The prevalence of hypertension in Romania is high, possible explanations of this might be the unhealthy lifestyle and diet.</em></p> Rosu Maria-Magdalena Moța Maria ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-23 2018-09-23 25 3 303 312 BONE AUGMENTATION AND BILATERAL SINUS ELEVATION AT A FEMALE PATIENT WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES http://www.rjdnmd.org/index.php/RJDNMD/article/view/507 <p><strong><em>Introduction</em></strong><em>. Chronic periodontal diseases and dental caries are the primary reasons for tooth loss in adults, which is further increased in people with diabetes. In most cases of bone loss, the treatment of partial edentulous patients with implant supported restorations impose additional surgical procedures, like sinus lift elevation and bone augmentation, which can complicate the healing process.&nbsp;</em><strong><em>Case report</em></strong><em>. This case report present a type 2 diabetes female patient with several oral health problems, like periodontal disease, poor decay control, bad oral hygiene, a severe maxillary atrophy and the presence of a large maxillary periapical cyst. After a careful examination<strong>, </strong>based on clinical and radiographic findings, a comprehensive treatment plan was established. The sequential treatment plan consist in extraction, surgical removal of periapical cyst, bilateral external sinus lift procedures and bone augmentation. The surgical protocol was adapted to the particular health conditions of this type II diabetes patient.&nbsp;</em><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><em>. Sinus elevation and bone augmentation are predictable procedures often required when restoring the posterior maxilla with dental implants. In case of diabetes patients with bone resorption and defects due to periapical cyst, if the correct protocol is followed</em><em>, </em><em>no post-surgical complications and good result in bone augmentation can be attaint.</em></p> Andrei Mihai Gavrilovici Anca Jivanescu Meda Lavinia Negrutiu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-23 2018-09-23 25 3 313 319 POTENTIAL RISK FACTORS OF THE COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS http://www.rjdnmd.org/index.php/RJDNMD/article/view/483 <p><em>It is known that the aged persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus present a high risk for developing&nbsp;</em><em>neurocognitive disorders and in order to explain this phenomenon we have proposed some potential risk factors. They can be involved in the causality patterns or can act as useful markers of the cerebrovascular lesions (or both) and for which there are strong proofs, including the poor glycemic control, hypoglycemia, microvascular diseases, inflammation or depression. For the macrovascular affections, the association with the cognitive disorders seems to devolve on the examined vascular system. It is put into discussion that for the next researches it is important to analyze how exactly the interrelations between the risk factors can contribute to cognitive disorders.</em></p> Andrei Cristian Bondar Amorin Remus Popa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-23 2018-09-23 25 3 321 328 WHY EARLY PSYCHOLOGICAL ATTENTION FOR TYPE 2 DIABETICS COULD CONTRIBUTE TO METABOLIC CONTROL http://www.rjdnmd.org/index.php/RJDNMD/article/view/492 <p><em>Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) is currently a public health emergency that requires inter- and multidisciplinary medical services. The principal aim of the present work was to review the basic factors related to the possible advantages of providing early psychological attention to DMT2 patients as a coadjuvant for achieving adequate metabolic control. A literature review was conducted to explore the interaction between stress and depression and the relation of both to the ability of DMT2 patients to effectively manage their disease. It was found that stress is one of the factors linked to the etiology of depression, which is a disorder with elevated prevalence in diabetic patients. Consequently, an inter- and multidisciplinary approach to treating diabetic patients was develoDiabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) is currently a public health emergency that requires inter- and multidisciplinary medical services. The principal aim of the present work was to review the basic factors related to the possible advantages of providing early psychological attention to DMT2 patients as a coadjuvant for achieving adequate metabolic control. A literature review was conducted to explore the interaction between stress and depression and the relation of both to the ability of DMT2 patients to effectively manage their disease. It was found that stress is one of the factors linked to the etiology of depression, which is a disorder with elevated prevalence in diabetic patients. Consequently, an inter- and multidisciplinary approach to treating diabetic patients was developed. One of the primary focuses of this approach is early psychological attention, starting shortly after the initial diagnosis. The ability to create consciousness among health professionals about the importance of early psychological attention for DMT2 patients under an inter- and multidisciplinary strategy could possibly improve pharmacological adherence, metabolic control, the quality of life and the life expectancy of patients, as well as save economic resources for patient families and health institutions.ped. One of the primary focuses of this approach is early psychological attention, starting shortly after the initial diagnosis. The ability to create consciousness among health professionals about the importance of early psychological attention for DMT2 patients under an inter- and multidisciplinary strategy could possibly improve pharmacological adherence, metabolic control, the quality of life and the life expectancy of patients, as well as save economic resources for patient families and health institutions.</em></p> Alfredo Briones-Aranda Manuela Castellanos-Pérez Raquel Gómez-Pliego ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-23 2018-09-23 25 3 329 334 HYPERURICEMIA - AS A PATHOGENETIC AND INDEPENDENT RISK FACTOR IN RELATION TO THE METABOLIC SYNDROME http://www.rjdnmd.org/index.php/RJDNMD/article/view/517 <p>The Metabolic Syndrome is considered at present as one of the most important causes of mortality and morbidity at world level. Even if the uric acid is not part of any definition of the Metabolic Syndrome, the actual studies have shown strong associations between uric acid concentration and the Metabolic Syndrome or its components, the role of Uric Acid within the Metabolic Syndrome (MS) being increasingly investigated. <strong>Aims: </strong>We have analyzed recently published data that show the importance of hyperuricemia in MS, Cardiovascular Diseases, Chronic Kidney Disease.<strong>Conclusions:&nbsp;</strong>Uric Acid (UA) is a central player in MS progression and in cardiorenal pathology, which is why a multidisciplinary approach and a correct treatment are required, in order to obtain multiple benefits and, possibly, in the future, new therapeutic guidelines in approaching MS.</p> Baidog Viorica Adriana Popa Amorin Remus ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-23 2018-09-23 25 3 335 341