Study of association between fat composition and glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients: Cross-sectional survey from coastal India

  • Liau ChiSu Medical student, PU-RCSI School of Medicine, Perdana University, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Prabhath Matpady Department of WASH and CCES Policy, UNICEF India, Hyderabad, India
  • Vijayalakshmi Sitanadhi Bhojaraja Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland Medical University of Bahrain, Muharraq, Bahrain
  • Venkatesh Naik Department of Pathology, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR), Petaling Jaya, Malaysia
  • Jeevan Kumar Shetty Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland Medical University of Bahrain, Muharraq, Bahrain
Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, body fat composition, visceral fat, waist circumference, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)


The increased prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and related complications in India has been related to rising obesity. Purpose: To evaluate the BMI, waist circumference (WC), body fat composition, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and explore the gender differences and association between these parameters. A total of 155 T2DM patients (89 males and 66 females) from Coastal Karnataka, India, participated in this study. Waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured using standard procedure, and Body Fat Composition was measured using a bioelectric impedance analyzer. The mean BMI, WC, and HbA1c visceral fat values were higher, whereas skeletal muscle mass was lower than the reference range in both males and females. In age-matched males and females, the total body fat, WC and subcutaneous fat were significantly higher in females. In contrast, the skeletal muscle mass in males was significantly higher. The HbA1c levels were found to be higher in males compared to females. Total body fat and subcutaneous fat were negatively correlated, whereas visceral fat and skeletal muscle mass were positively correlated with HbA1c. There was slightly poor glycemic control in males compared to females, related to higher visceral fat. Hence, measuring the body fat composition and currently used clinical and laboratory parameters helps monitor and prevent T2DM-related complications. The study highlights the low skeletal muscle and high visceral fat in the Indian population. The study also relates the high visceral fat and poor muscle mass contributing to insulin resistance, which causes poor glycemic control and T2-DM-related complications.

How to Cite
ChiSu, Liau, Prabhath Matpady, Vijayalakshmi Bhojaraja, Venkatesh Naik, and Jeevan Shetty. 2024. “Study of Association Between Fat Composition and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: Cross-Sectional Survey from Coastal India”. Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases 31 (1), 5-10.