Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases <p>The <strong>Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases</strong> is the journal of the <strong>Romanian Society of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases</strong>.</p> <p>It appeared for the first time in 1992, in Romanian language and beginning with 2006 it was published entirely in English. It is a peer reviewed journal, therefore the accepted articles were peer-reviewed by <strong>at least two scientific experts</strong> in the field.</p> <p>It contains <strong>original papers</strong>, including fundamental and clinical research, <strong>literature reviews</strong>, <strong>clinical reports</strong>, <strong>editorials</strong>, articles that contain the <strong>results of the most important clinical studies</strong>, reports from the important congresses and <strong>book reviews</strong>.&nbsp;</p> <p>In Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases there may be published only papers exclusively sent to this journal, not published previously. The authors should include possible conflicts of interest and financing sources. The laws of copyright and international rules of scientific research are respected.</p> <p>The Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases <strong>strictly requires</strong> for all the scientific work published <strong>to be 100% compliant</strong> with the&nbsp;<a title="ICMJE.ORG" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals</a>&nbsp;and with the&nbsp;<a title="Best Practices" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing</a> (joint statement by COPE, DOAJ, WAME, and OASPA).</p> <p>This journal appears trimestrially (four numbers/year). 650-800 copies are printed on each number.</p> <p>ILEX Printing House, Bucharest, has the exclusivity for the typesetting, printing and distribution of the Romanian Journal of Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases.</p> <p>Our journal is recognized by the Romanian National University Research Council (CNCSIS - 2009) to be part in the B+ category, Code 322.</p> <p>The Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases is currently indexed in:</p> <p>- Index Copernicus<br>- Get Cited<br>- SCOPUS<br>- Scirus<br>- Celdes<br>- CNKI Scholar (China National Knowledge Infrastucture)<br>- CNPIEC<br>- EBSCO - TOC Premier<br>- EBSCO Discovery Service<br>- Google Scholar<br>- J-Gate<br>- Naviga (Softweco)<br>- Primo Central (ExLibris)<br>- SCImago (SJR)<br>- Summon (Serials Solutions/ProQuest)<br>- TDOne (TDNet)<br>- Ulrich's Periodicals Directory/ulrichsweb<br>- WorldCat (OCLC)</p> Romanian Society of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases en-US Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases 2068-8245 Immune predictors of diabetic retinopathy against the background of different glucose tolerance <p>Pathogenetic mechanisms of diabetic retinopathy are associated with the toxic effects of hyperglycemia and subsequent activation of stress-sensitive systems. The purpose was to determine the features of immune dysfunction in patients with diabetic retinopathy against the background of metabolic syndrome. Clinical and laboratory examinations of 130 patients with diabetic retinopathy have been carried out (70 insulin-dependent patients – group 1 and 60 insulin-independent patients – group 2). In determining the surveyed individuals’ contents of the lymphocyte populations and subpopulations, the monoclonal antibodies were used to CD3 +, CD4 +, CD8 +, CD19 +, CD23 +, CD25 +, CD56 + in the reaction of indirect immunofluorescence with fluorescein-isothiocyanate labeled antibodies and indices were calculated – the ratio of the lymphocyte populations and subpopulations. The population and subpopulation composition of blood lymphocytes were studied, and the ratio of cellular factors of immunity in patients with diabetic retinopathy was calculated. The immune status of patients with diabetic retinopathy is characterized by more pronounced changes in insulin-dependent patients’ cellular immunity – the activation of nonspecific killer immunity, suppressor potential and humoral immunity than in insulin-independent patients. The results allow the pathogenetic correction of diabetic retinopathy with the immune imbalance.</p> Marta Horecha Nataliia Demianchuk Lyubov Lapovets Viorika Akimova Nataliia Lutsiv Olha Buchko Yuliia Stepas Maria Shchurko Larusa Soyka Iryna Vizna ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 31 1 1 4 Study of association between fat composition and glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients: Cross-sectional survey from coastal India <p>The increased prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and related complications in India has been related to rising obesity. Purpose: To evaluate the BMI, waist circumference (WC), body fat composition, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and explore the gender differences and association between these parameters. A total of 155 T2DM patients (89 males and 66 females) from Coastal Karnataka, India, participated in this study. Waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured using standard procedure, and Body Fat Composition was measured using a bioelectric impedance analyzer. The mean BMI, WC, and HbA1c visceral fat values were higher, whereas skeletal muscle mass was lower than the reference range in both males and females. In age-matched males and females, the total body fat, WC and subcutaneous fat were significantly higher in females. In contrast, the skeletal muscle mass in males was significantly higher. The HbA1c levels were found to be higher in males compared to females. Total body fat and subcutaneous fat were negatively correlated, whereas visceral fat and skeletal muscle mass were positively correlated with HbA1c. There was slightly poor glycemic control in males compared to females, related to higher visceral fat. Hence, measuring the body fat composition and currently used clinical and laboratory parameters helps monitor and prevent T2DM-related complications. The study highlights the low skeletal muscle and high visceral fat in the Indian population. The study also relates the high visceral fat and poor muscle mass contributing to insulin resistance, which causes poor glycemic control and T2-DM-related complications.</p> Liau ChiSu Prabhath Matpady Vijayalakshmi Sitanadhi Bhojaraja Venkatesh Naik Jeevan Kumar Shetty ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 31 1 5 10 Clinical, laboratory and endothelium-modulating changes in patients with arterial hypertension comorbid with hypothyroidism <p>Endothelial dysfunction is one of the early pathogenetic signs and a universal predictor of various diseases, including arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, cerebrovascular pathology, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and others. Functional impairment of the vascular endothelium can deepen under the influence of innate and pathological factors. Up to the present, the effect of thyroid hormones on the state of the endothelium has not been sufficiently studied. The purpose of the research was to study the characteristics of changes in the functioning of endothelium in patients with arterial hypertension comorbid with hypothyroidism and to investigate the relationships between endothelium-dependent vasodilatation of the brachial artery and the main clinical and anthropometric indicators, blood pressure levels and biochemical blood parameters in this cohort of patients. The study included 99 patients with stage 2 arterial hypertension, who were divided into 3 groups depending on the functional state of their thyroid gland. All examinees were measured height, body weight, body mass index, waist circumference and blood pressure. Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism and imbalance of lipid spectrum were studied based on the results of biochemical blood analysis. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation was evaluated based on the results of cuff test. The statistical analysis was performed using MS Excel 2016 and Statistica 10 software applications. The result of the research showed that among patients with hypertension comorbid with hypothyroidism a decrease in the hormone-producing function of their thyroid gland and an increase in the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone is an additional factor in endothelium dysfunction. A reliable negative correlation of medium strength was found between endothelium-dependent vasodilatation indicators and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels in such patients, which endorses the expediency of the reduced thyroid function compensation together with an adequate antihypertensive therapy.</p> Mykola Ivanovych Shved Larysa Petrivna Martynyuk Marta Andriivna Orel Volodymyr Vladyslavovych Hnatko Iryna Oleksandrivna Yastremska ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 31 1 11 18 Knowledge and awareness of dental considerations in diabetic patients: A questionnaire survey <p>Diabetes Mellitus (DM) has become a worldwide concern, with several systemic and oral complications. Dental students must be aware of the condition. Hence, the study aimed to assess and compare the levels of knowledge and awareness regarding oral considerations in diabetic patients among interns and postgraduate (PG) dental students. The survey was conducted among interns (119) and PGs (92) from dental colleges in Mangalore, using a web-based questionnaire form consisting of 14 questions. A chi-square test analyzed the categorical variables, and an independent sample t-test was used to compare the two groups’ mean knowledge and awareness scores. PGs exhibited significantly higher knowledge (p-value 0.000) about the average plasma glucose test (65.2%) than interns (39.5%). Whereas interns (45.4%) showed superior knowledge about the glycemic goal when compared to PGs (40.2%) (p≤0.05). However, the two groups had no statistically significant difference in the mean knowledge and awareness scores (p-values 0.156 and 0.618, respectively). Although the study groups exhibited similar levels of knowledge and awareness, the dental students’ accurate response rate about the risk factors of diabetes, prophylactic antibiotic coverage, hypoglycemic state, and its symptoms were limited. Establishing effective educational resources for dental students is necessary to address this issue.</p> Bharathi Ashok Kumar Nina Shenoy Amitha Ramesh Deepa Giridhar Kamath ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 31 1 19 25 Factors for evaluating the progress of chronic tonsillitis based on multifactor regression analysis <p>The aim is to propose an approach to predicting the risk of progression of chronic tonsillitis in patients based on multivariate regression analysis for timely, convenient, and accurate diagnosis with subsequent selection of effective treatment and preventive measures in ENT departments (otolaryngology departments). A number of 100 patients with various forms of chronic tonsillitis, whose average age was 37 years, and 51 women and 49 men, were examined according to a specially developed questionnaire to predict the risk of ChT progression. The most probable indicators of chronic tonsillitis progression were selected to build a multivariate regression model for predicting the risk of ChT progression, 13 probable factors of the ChT progression were analyzed, and 9 factors were used to build a multivariate regression model. Histogram of the residual deviations is distributed symmetrically, approaching the curve of the normal distribution of the residuals and the absence of systematic deviations from the normal-probability straight line, so we conclude that the statistical hypothesis that their distribution conforms to the normal distribution law is not rejected. The residuals relative to the predicted values are scattered chaotically, which indicates the absence of dependence on the predicted values for the risk of chronic tonsillitis progression. The coefficient of determination was calculated, which is 0.8258, which claims that 82.58% of the factors are considered in the prediction model of the risk of chronic tonsillitis progression. The coefficient of determination indicates how well the obtained observations confirm the mathematical model. The proposed multivariate regression model that considers the risk factors for the ChT progression makes it possible to predict potential meta tonsillar complications and the possibility of timely disease prevention.</p> Maksym Herasymiuk Andrii Sverstiuk Ulyana Franchuk ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 31 1 26 34 The relationship between stress level and physical activity and diabetes diet quality during the pandemic <p>Stress levels, physical activity and diet quality are very important for people with diabetes to prevent complications; stress during a pandemic and lack of physical activity will change the quality of a diabetic’s diet—observational analytic research with a cross-sectional approach with a total of 90 respondents. Data was collected using a Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) questionnaire, Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) Short Version, Food Frequency Semy Quantitative, Diet Quality Index International (DQI-I), Nutrisurvey 2007. Data processing was carried out univariately and bivariately. From this study, the stress level of some respondents, 51 people (56.6%), was moderate. Physical activity of some respondents with low physical activity, with a total of 55 people (61.1%). Some of the respondents’ physical activity had low diet quality, totaling 81 (90.0%). Most respondents had moderate stress levels with low physical activity, namely 50 people (61.1%), moderate stress levels with low diet quality, namely 49 people (54.4%), and low physical activity with low diet quality, namely 52 people. (57.8%) and there is a significant relationship between stress levels and physical activity with diet quality (p&lt;0.05). In conclusion, the more severe the stress level and the lower the physical activity, the lower the diet quality.</p> Rifka Syifa Zakiya Ratih Kurniasari Eka Andriani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 31 1 35 40 Using CD63 and CD203 in diagnosing food allergies <p>Food allergies are one of the most common diseases in recent times. Due to the increasing incidence of food allergies and the difficulty of diagnosing this type of allergy, the study aims to evaluate the role of the differential proteins CD63 and CD203 in diagnosing food allergies. The study was of 90 blood samples from people aged between 7–49 years old. It involves 70 blood samples from allergic people and 20 from healthy people, considered control samples. The allergy diagnosis was confirmed on 90 samples using the allergy type test using the diagnostic kit (Atopic Kit). The results brought to light that 30 samples were food allergy, 40 samples were not under food allergy, and 20 control samples were also not food allergy. Besides, the present study included the estimation of differential proteins CD203 and differential proteins CD63 in the serum of the studied samples using the ELISA technique. The results of the current study showed an increase in the concentration of CD203, as its average concentration in samples of people with food allergy reached a rate of 0.16+0.15 ng/mL, compared to the average concentration of control samples, which was at a rate of 0.14+0.05 ng/mL, with significant differences in the concentration of CD203 in people with food allergies, and control samples, at the probability level P≤0.05. Moreover, the study under question disclosed that differential proteins are essential criteria for measuring basophil activity and diagnosing food allergies. This study’s conclusion is that CD203 and CD63 are important criteria for measuring basophil activity and diagnosing food allergies.</p> Ruqayah Askar Irhayyif Shayma’a Jabbar Raisan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 31 1 41 46 Oral health in people with diabetes and chronic kidney disease: A series of cases <p>Diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease have become increasingly prevalent over the last decade. They are usually related to a poor oral health condition, particularly to a high prevalence of periodontal disease. This case series includes 26 patients suffering from diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease. The clinical examinations were performed by the same examiner using a dental mirror and a rounded-tip periodontal probe. Demographical data was collected by interview. Clinical data concerning the number of functional teeth, periodontal parameters, and hygiene index were recorded in a special assessment form. Radiological data were also used for periodontal assessment. The mean age of the group was 63.11±9.5 years. Periodontal disease was present in all dentate patients. More than half of the dentate patients had unsatisfactory oral hygiene. Patients suffering from both diabetes and chronic kidney disease presented a high prevalence of periodontitis, with more severe forms and poor oral hygiene.</p> Oana Slusanschi Roxana Oancea Liliana Garneata Adrian Tandara Ilinca Bica Cristian Funieru ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 31 1 47 51 Correlation between urinary microalbumin and glycated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetes <p>The chronic metabolic disorder diabetes mellitus is a fast-growing global problem with huge social, health, and economic consequences. Nephropathy is one of the tricky situations of type 2 diabetes mellitus that may well lead to end-stage renal disease. Persistent microalbuminuria is the best predictor of a high risk of developing diabetic nephropathy. This study was done on fifty type 2 diabetes patients attending Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute, Kodambakkam: age and sex-matched cross-sectional study. A number of 50 type 2 DM with the age groups 40–70 years without complications were taken as cases, and 50 healthy subjects of comparable age were taken as controls in the study. The study was conducted among 100 study subjects who were type 2 diabetes individuals. The scatter plot shows the correlation between all study subjects’ urinary microalbumin and glycated hemoglobin values. The correlation between urinary microalbumin and glycated hemoglobin is strongly correlated. The association between urinary microalbumin and glycated hemoglobin in type 2 DM is strongly correlated. Urinary microalbumin levels are much higher in people who have (Poor Glycemic Control).</p> Jaya Janani Murugesa Pandian Anuradha Ganesan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 31 1 52 56 Is HS-CRP useful in identifying a subset of normal-weight women with higher cardiovascular risk? <p>Due to the paucity of information on high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) identifying an at-risk group of non-obese individuals with a higher risk of subclinical atherosclerosis, we decided to evaluate hs-CRP identifying cardiovascular risks on inflammatory obesity phenotypes. We studied 154 women aged 20–35 years. Inflammatory status was defined as a serum hs-CRP level ≥2 mg/L. Individuals were grouped according to inflammatory obesity phenotypes: 1) IHNW: inflammatory healthy normal weight, 2) IUNW: inflammatory unhealthy normal weight, 3) IHO: inflammatory healthy obese, 4) IUO: inflammatory unhealthy obese. Body composition was significantly better in the IHO group compared to the IUO group(P&lt;0.001), except for lean body mass in the left and right leg. After adjustment for covariates, the IHNW and IUNW had significant differences in hs-CRP, FBS and lipid profile(P&lt;0.05). The IUO phenotype individuals had significantly more Cho/HDL, LDL/HDL and Atherogenic Index of Plasma(P&lt;0.05). Moreover, the HOMA-s percentage was significantly higher in the IHO group compared to the IUO group. In conclusion, hsCRP ≥2 mg/L is useful in identifying a subset of obese and non-obese women with higher CVD risk. High hs-CRP, in the absence of obesity, could distinguish non-obese subset subjects with cardiovascular risk.</p> Vahideh Aghamohammadi Meysam Alipour Damoon Ashtary-Larky Hadi Bazyar Neda Haghighat Khadijeh Nasiri Amir Abbasnezhad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 31 1 57 64 Effect of exercise on TNF-α levels in patients with type 2 diabetes in Bengkulu, Indonesia <p>Along with diet and medication, exercise is now recommended as the first approach for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients. Previous studies indicate that regular exercise has an anti-inflammatory effect. TNF-α is one of the prominent pro-inflammatory mediators involved in the pathophysiology of T2DM; however, the effect is inconclusive. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of diabetes exercise on the TNF-α level in patients with T2DM. A pre-test and post-test one-group design research was conducted at the Community Health Centre Sentinel Bengkulu, Indonesia, from November to December 2019. Patients with type 2 diabetes received diabetes exercise training for eight weeks (one time per week). Our study involved fifteen T2DM patients: 55.53±3.16 years old; male/female ratio, 2/13; and duration of diabetes was 13.87±2.94 years. Exercise training reduced TNF-α level (from 78.60±14.38 to 61.47±11.56 pg/mL; p&lt;0.0001). Fasting blood glucose decreased after diabetes exercise (190±50.43 vs. 221.53±39.02 mg/dL; p=0.0065). Performing diabetes exercise exerts anti-inflammatory effects in T2DM patients. This observation should encourage patients with T2DM to increase their physical activity levels to prevent diabetes complications.</p> Raden Sunita Resva Meinisasti Sri Wahyuni Agung Riyadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 31 1 65 69 Evaluation of salivary glucose levels and oral health status in healthy individuals: An ex vivo study <p>According to the World Health Organization, 19.4 million people in India had diabetes in 1995, and this figure is projected to rise to 57.2 million by 2025, accounting for one-sixth of the global total. Saliva is referred to as the “mirror of the body” since it functions as a health indicator in the mouth and throughout the body. Since diabetes has been declared a pandemic of non-communicable diseases, a chair-side, non-invasive, less technique-sensitive, cost-effective approach should be considered. The study evaluated the association between salivary glucose levels and oral health status of healthy individuals. After obtaining the informed consent, an oral cavity was examined per the WHO oral health status form for adults (Annexure 1). The standard salivary glucose level was measured using the O-Toluidine reagent method using a double-beam spectrophotometer. The blood glucose levels were measured using an electronic blood glucose meter. On comparison of glucose levels according to CPI score and DMFT experience using ANOVA, a p-value of 0.08 (&gt;0.05) and 0.95 (&gt;0.05) was obtained, which was statistically non-significant. The bivariate correlation between Salivary Glucose Level (SGL) (ug/ml) and blood Glucose Level (BGL) (mg/dl) was checked using the Pearson correlation coefficient. There was a statistically significant moderate and positive correlation between Blood Glucose Levels (mg/dl) and salivary Glucose Levels (ug/ml). Within the limitation of the study, the study concluded that there is no significant association between salivary glucose levels and oral health status of healthy individuals. However, a positive correlation exists between salivary glucose levels and blood glucose levels in healthy individuals.</p> Pratheek Venkatesh Shanbhag Mithra Hegde Suchetha Kumari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 31 1 70 74 Antidiabetic and pancreato-protective effect of clove leaf essential oil in diabetic rats: in vivo and silico study <p>Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease that causes pancreas defects and insulin deficiency, which can lead to several complications. Clove leaf essential oil was found to control glycemic levels and protect the pancreatic tissue. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the antidiabetic and pancreatic-protective effects of clove leaf essential oil in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. A true experimental post-test was conducted only to evaluate the effect of clove leaf essential oil administration on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The phytochemical content was determined by the Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry method. Blood glucose levels were measured after two weeks of clove leaf essential oil administration. Computational and histopathology analyses were also performed. Clove leaf essential oil contained 66.5% eugenol and significantly reduced fasting glucose levels of diabetic rats in the treatment group (p=0.013). In silico results showed that eugenol had higher energy binding to albumin compared to glucose (-Δ2.75 vs. -Δ1.27 kcal/mol), thus reducing glucose-albumin-induced oxidative stress and protecting the pancreatic cell. The histopathological changes of the pancreas showed a better morphology of islet cells in the treatment group. Clove leaf essential oil has antidiabetic and pancreatic-protective effects in diabetic rats.</p> Aizar Vesa Prasetyo I Gede Krisna Arim Sadeva Putri Ayu Wulandari Putu Sinta Elix Wahyuni I Gede Aswin Parisya Sasmana Christo Timothy Mamangdean Desak Made Wihandani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 31 1 75 83 Fibers from tubers and rhizomes of local plant species in Indonesia as a potent dietary supplement to prevent diet-induced obesity <p>Various tubers and rhizomes of local plant species in Indonesia have potential as alternative foods and resources of dietary fiber that could counteract metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and associated health issues. However, studies focusing on the composition and medicinal benefits of extracted fibers from tubers and rhizomes remain limited. Our present study aimed to explore the composition and the beneficial effects of dietary fiber extracted from tubers of achira (Canna edulis), Mentawai taro (Colocasia sp.), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), and jicama (Pachyrhizus erosus) to counteract obesity development in mice fed with a fatty diet. Fibers were extracted from tubers and rhizomes, followed by proximate analysis to determine the nutritional and fiber composition. Thereafter, each fiber was tested for its effectiveness in preventing obesity caused by a high-fat diet (HFD) by using mice as the animal model. We revealed that all extracted fibers predominantly consisted of non-starchy carbs with very low fat and protein levels. The extract of achira and jicama consisted of higher total dietary fiber as compared to others. Our experiment on mice demonstrated that supplementation of 25% fiber of achira, Mentawai taro, arrowroot, and jicama in HFD could effectively prevent obesity independent of daily calorie intake. Our findings suggest that the dietary fiber of achira, Mentawai taro, arrowroot, and jicama could be a potent candidate as a supplement to combat HFD-induced obesity.</p> Putra Santoso Rita Maliza Resti Rahayu Muhammad Ihsan Anggi Manura ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 31 1 84 92 Inhibin-A as an early marker of moderate preeclampsia development: Complex modified therapy and its impact on placental structure <p>Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy are a significant issue in modern obstetrics. Preeclampsia complicates approximately 5% of all pregnancies worldwide. It is an important cause of complications for the mother, fetus, and newborn and can also lead to fatal consequences. Gestosis is a critical condition syndrome that occurs during pregnancy, based on a variety of sequentially developed organ dysfunctions due to insufficient perfusion-metabolic processes and the development of fetal egg structures. Gestosis, as a syndrome of multiple organ dysfunction, is necessarily associated with pregnancy and is a critical condition. Specifically, dysfunctions are not incapacity, as dysfunction is a broader concept of organ function disruption, which can be both hypo- and hyperdynamic in nature. Also, there is not enough data on late gestosis in the modern literature which supports the relevance of the diagnosis problem and choosing the optimal treatment strategy for such women. All this leads to a growing interest in the pathogenesis of this problem.</p> Ulyana Franchuk ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 31 1 93 97 Pregnant women smokers at risk of children’s obesity in Asia Pacific: A systematic review <p class="Abstracttext">The prevalence of obesity in children is a concern regarding the health implications that arise in the future. Prevention-based interventions on risk factors are directed at achieving the 3rd SDG’s goal of reducing premature mortality from non-communicable diseases. Women who smoke during pregnancy are contributors to the increase in Body Mass Index (BMI) or obesity in children. The study aims to analyze the relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood obesity in Asia Pacific countries. A literature review was identified by Pubmed, the Lancet, and Science Direct. The review is limited to original research conducted in the Asia Pacific region and limited to 2010 to 2020. The article was screened and extracted using the PRISMA flow chart. A total of 5 articles that met the criteria were reviewed, consisting of 3 articles with a prospective cohort design, one article with a population-based survey, and one article with a cross-sectional design. The article’s results showed that maternal smoking during pregnancy has been shown to significantly influence the occurrence of obesity in children. Women who smoke during pregnancy are associated with obesity in children in the Asia Pacific region. This contributes to the risk factors that cause obesity in children and provides information for policymakers and health professionals in making anti-smoking programs or interventions for mothers during pregnancy.</p> Eny Qurniyawati Santi Martini Linda Andriani Virgilio Soares ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 31 1 98 104 The role of anthocyanin in obesity <p>Obesity has become a serious global problem that has affected around 13% of the world’s population. This disease is closely related to promoting lipogenesis and decreases lipolysis, accumulating adipose tissue, thus interfering with its regulation. Adipose tissue has been considered the main endocrine and secretory organ, which also becomes the energy reservoir in the form of triglyceride and secretes many mediators called adipokines, including hormones and inflammatory mediators that play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity. The adipose tissue accumulation induces hyperleptinemia, which stimulates leptin resistance and mild systemic inflammation, resulting in systemic organ disruptions. At the same time, anthocyanin is a glycoside that has the potential as an antiobesity agent through several pathways, including lipogenesis inhibition, lipolysis promotion, inhibition of lipid absorption, increasing fat oxidation, regulation of obesity-related hormones, and oxidative stress reduction. This compound has the potential to modulate the de novo lipogenesis pathway through the inhibition of transcription factors and enzymes involved. Moreover, activating epinephrine receptors on the adipose cell surface promotes the epinephrine-induced lipolysis pathway and enhances lipid oxidation and energy utilization. By regulating metabolism and maintaining the adipose tissue’s homeostasis, anthocyanin can potentially ameliorate obesity.</p> I Gede Aswin Parisya Sasmana I Wayan Surudarma Ida Ayu Dewi Wiryanthini I Wayan Gede Sutadarma Desak Made Wihandani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 31 1 105 112